Friday, September 20, 2019

Analysis of the Greenwich Primary Care Trust

Analysis of the Greenwich Primary Care Trust A report describing and analysing the public health contribution of an organisation or initiative of your choice. Greenwich Primary Care Trust Introduction The contribution to public health made by an organisation or agency can be evaluated in relation to a number of features. These can be the range and scope of activities, the relevance for the local area, the effectiveness of the interventions, and their foundation within the boundaries of evidence-based practice. However, public health can also be measured in relation to how well the agency addresses key aspects of public health, including inequalities in health, what these constitute and their impact, and what is being done to address specific inequalities. In addition, known areas of public health need can be assessed in terms of progress made so far and amount of services provided to meet identified targets. This report explores the public health contribution provided by Greenwich Primary Care Trust in their The annual Public Health Report 2007 2008. In this report, which introduces itself using the following frames of reference, â€Å"providing the most up-to-date and local information; thinking ahead as the population is due to grow and change; and making evidence-based recommendations to help prioritise local actions on the key health challenges for the borough† (GPCT, 2008 p 3). Discussion Public health is generally focused on significant health factors and issues which are important to the wider population, rather than to the individual, and impact upon society and social structures and social life, not just on the lives of single people (Pomerleau and McKee, 2005; Orme et al, 2007). Pomerlau and McKee (2005) describe public health as â€Å"the science and art of promoting health and preventing disease through the organized efforts of society† ( p 7). Therefore, it is not surprising that the report focuses very much on language surrounding the identification of key elements of public health which are subject to health promotion within the locality, as being the specific focus of the Trust. Pomerleau and McKee (2005) cite the Ottawa Charter which was concerned with building healthy public policy; creating supportive environments; strengthening community actions; developing personal skills; reorienting health services ; and demonstrating commitment to health prom otion (p 9). These could be considered as signposts to understanding the value of a public health policy published by a specific agency. The report is a clear, detailed and comprehensive report clearly and effectively outlining key areas for health which are viewed as priorities. These include: Improving mental health (especially depression); Reducing cardiovascular disease (chiefly heart attacks and strokes); and reducing cancers (especially lung, bowel, prostate and breast) (GPCT, 2008). The report provides statistics on morbidity and mortality for the borough which demonstrate that in relation to health and disability over the lifespan, these are the most significant health problems and the ones which are, it can be assumed, most urgently requiring attention. All of these foci are very much about health promotion, but when looked at in the context of what is known about these kinds of diseases, all of the other elements of the Ottawa Charter cited above can be seen to affect these health issues. In line with health promotion principles, the report does focus on living longer, on quality of life, and on wellbeing issues, all of which are laudable in relation to public health because they relate both to the individual, and individual desires, and to the aspects of public health which will support and benefit the state (Iphofen, 2003). One of the drawbacks, however, of such a sweeping approach to public health policy, however, is seen in this report as frequently as it is seen in the national, governmental health promotion campaigns, that of over-simplification, and, arguably unconscious, marginalisation of certain individuals. For example, the report, like government public health campaigns, does not take enough notice of the individual fac tors which not only influence health but are not so easy to eradicate, such as the genetic factors influencing health and health behaviours (Hall, 1951). In relation to health promotion in the key health areas identified, the report does acknowledge the issues of lifestyle factors and socio-economic factors affecting health and disease, morbidity and mortality. The report states that both current and historic socio-economic factors, and the diversity of the local population, especially in relation to ethnicity, are considered significant in relation to the most important public health issues. There is a wide range of literature which links social life, socio-economic status and health, and which demonstrates that those who experience inequalities in health are those who are most disadvantaged in social and economic life (Bury and Gabe, 2004). It is also well known that health inequalities increase as the gap between advantage and disadvantage widens, and that certain social or cultural groups are more likely to experience disadvantage and the concomitant inequalities in health (Freund et al, 2003). GPCT (2008) acknowledge this, and fo cus on some important social groups as most suffering disadvantage in the locality, including Black African and Irish populations. They argue that their policies have been designed to demonstrate â€Å"greater targeting of groups at greatest risk of poor health outcomes, and working with these groups to develop approaches that will really work, with a particular focus on the Black African and Irish populations in the borough who have poor outcomes across the major causes of early death and ill health† (p 7). The report also addresses a range of ethnic issues and differences in health. However, it does not go far enough in describing and discussing policy responses to these issues, and to outlining constructive ways to make real progress in these areas. Plenty of literature shows the ethnicity based inequalities in health and the spectrum of disadvantage related to ethnic diversity (Spector, 2002). These kinds of inequalities, which are often racially demarcated, are reflected in global communities, and are no new occurrence (Goeslin et al, 2004). Yet there are ongoing discussions about the ability to address such problems through public health initiatives, even with the inclusion of and best use of healthy public policy (Bury and Gabe, 2004; Pomerleau and McKee (2005). Issues which continue to reflect the cross-sectorial problems surrounding public health include homelessness and poverty (Ryan and Sarikoudis, 2003). The report does address the statistics around economic inequalities and poverty, showing that the borough has a higher proportion of people in lower-paid occupations, which significantly impacts on health. It also addresses some specific issues which emerge from the social health spectrum, including sexual health and young people (Bergmann and Scott, 2001). The report does focus on behavioural aspects of health, and illness, across specific social groups, including young people’s health. Some of the issues presented are similar to those found nationally and internationally, including teenage pregnancy and teenage social isolation (Bergmann and Scott, 2001; Goesling and Firebaugh, 2004). However, there is very little focus on, for example, homelessness as a public health issue, one which affects many of the key points which are being raised in the report. Shah and Cook (2001) for example, show that in one of the key indices of cardiovascular disease, that of hypertension, factors influencing this disease the most are not socioeconomic status but actually social isolation, and homelessness is one of the most severe forms of social isolation that exists in our society. The report cites a number of initiatives which have positively affected health and wellbeing within the borough, but it does not really present any radical or innovative initiatives to address what are ongoing, predictable and somewhat repetitive and recurrent health and lifestyle issues which impact upon morbidity and mortality. There is a great need for different approaches to public health which build upon existing knowledge and incorporate, perhaps, more concrete information. For example, including service user input in the collection, analysis and use of these kinds of data, and in the development of public health policy, should be a significant part of public health activities such as these, and should feature more strongly in these kinds of reports. Yet models of health and social care continue to exclude the patient voice, though in this circumstance it may be complicated by the ethnic and cultural diversity fo the borough (Gagliardi et al, 2008). Conclusion The report discussed identifies the specific public health concerns of this London borough, and demonstrates not only what the most challenging issues are, but how the public health data of mortality and morbidity statistics intersect with some of the socio-economic and cultural statistics of the area. It identifies key areas for health promotion, but does not go far enough in addressing individual differences and the genetic factors which can complicate sweeping statements about causal and affecting factors in health and illness. It demonstrates that public health policies must be focused on local need, and that ongoing concerns are cardiovascular disease, mental illness and cancer. All of these are related to lifestyles, and therefore public health policy also relates to social policy. However, the links between these two could be made much clearer. References Bergman MM, and Scott J (2001) Young adolescents wellbeing and health-risk behaviours: gender and socio-economic differences. Journal of Adolescence. 24, 2, 183-197 Bury, M. and Gabe, J. (2004) The Sociology of Health and Illness: A Reader. London: Routledge. Carr, S.M. (2007) Leading change in public health – factors that inhibit and facilitate energizing the process. Primary Health Care Research and Development. 8 207-215. Freund, P., McGuire, M. Podhurst, L. (2003). Health, Illness and the Social Body London. Gagliardi, A.R., Lemieux-Charles, L, Brown, A.D. et al (2008) Barriers to patient involvement in health service planning and evaluation: An exploratory study. Patient Education and Counseling 70 (2) 234-241. Goesling, B. and Firebaugh, G. (2004) The Trend in International Health Inequality Population and Development Review 30 (1) 131–146. Hall, C.S. (1951) The genetics of behavior. In Stevens, S.S. (ed.), Handbook of Experimental Psychology, 1st ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA 304-329. Harding, G. Taylor, K. (2002) Social Determinants of Health and Illness The Pharmaceutical Journal 269 485-487. Iphofen, R. (2003) Social and individual factors influencing public health. In: Costello, J. Haggart, M. (2003). Public Health and Society Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Orme J, Powell J, Taylor P and Grey M (2007) Public health for the 21st century (second edition) (Chapter 1.) Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Pomerleau J, Mckee M (eds) (2005) Issues in Public Health Milton Keynes: Open University Press Ryan, A. Sarikoudis, V. (2003). ‘The Social Model of Health, Bridging the Gap between the health and homelessness sectors’. Paper Presented at the Third National Homelessness Conference. Shah, S. and Cook, D.G. (2001) Inequalities in the treatment and control of hypertension: age, social isolation and lifestyle are more important than economic circumstances. Journal of Hypertension. 19 (7) 1333-1340. Spector, R.E. (2002) Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness Journal of Transcultural Nursing 13 197.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Achilles and Patroklos :: Essays Papers

Achilles and Patroklos I think the reason that Achilles allows Patroklos to fight is because Achilles knows that the Greeks need all the help they can get. The Trojans are very near to their ships and without some great miracle, the Greeks will be defeated. When Patroklos comes to Achilles with the idea of going out in his armor and fighting to try to muster the Greek troops and frighten the Trojans, Achilles is taken in by his dear friend’s plea. Achilles gives in because he knows how much this opportunity will mean to Patroklos, who has always stood in Achilles’ shadow. So as to give his friend an opportunity to gain honor through battle and become great, Achilles allows Patroklos to enter the battle wearing his armor and with his blessing, even though he places a few stipulations on him. I had a hard time examining why exactly Achilles placed those limitations on Patroklos. At first I wanted to believe that it was just Achilles trying to be a good friend and make sure that his friend did not end up getting killed. However, the longer and more I looked at it, the more it seemed like Achilles was trying to save face with the Greeks. He decides that his ego is still too damaged to return to the battle himself, so instead he sends his friend. It is very convenient that Patroklos is practically begging him for his consent. Achilles grudgingly gives his approval while still making sure that his own kleos is not damaged by Patroklos’ newfound bravery. He makes Patroklos promise that he will not continue to fight the Trojans after they have been pushed away from the Greek ships, but to allow the rest of the army to move ahead and finish the battle. He also must promise, once the Trojans are on the retreat, to come and get him so that the two of them can share the glory of finishing off the Trojans. Whether these boundaries were placed on Patroklos for his safety, or the safety of Achilles honor, makes a huge difference in the character of Achilles. If these limits were given to Patroklos just to save Achilles’ ego in the eyes of the Trojans and Greeks alike, then he is perhaps one of the most arrogant, self-serving men that has ever lived, in myth or real life.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Mexico and the Quest for Economic Improvement :: Free Essays Online

Mexico and the Quest for Economic Improvement Karl Marx once stated, â€Å" A commodity appears at first sight, a very trivial thing and easily understood. It’s analysis shows that it is in reality, a very queer thing, abounding in metaphysical subtleties and theological niceties.† Ironically, Marx would have never anticipated the conflict over queer space that I am going to detail. The commodification of Aguascalientes, Mexico has been nonetheless a very queer thing indeed. The space in Aguascalientes has been torn apart by competing ideals surrounding sexuality and gay and lesbian identity, yet both sides in this competition have a common interest: selling a specific commodity—namely, the space of Aguascalientes In September 2000, Mr. Jorge Alvarez Medina, the Director of Regulations of Aguascalientes, in the Mexican state of Aguascalientes, publicly announced his opposition to gays, lesbians, and transgender people. He stated that he will â€Å"not allow ‘this type of people’ access to any public facility or allow them to work in the public sector.† Medina also claimed that Aguascalientes needed to portray a cleaner image to the public. Many LGBT and human rights organizations claim this act to be â€Å"prejudiced, corrupt, and violent.† The order made by Medina is also a threat to Article 7 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states, â€Å"All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection before the law.† This is only one of the many events that have occurred in Aguascalientes pertaining to gay, lesbian and transgender relations, where, according to some estimates, there are more than 12,200 gays (more than 10% of overall population). By analyzing these statements made by Medina, many questions arise. If Medina is tying to portray a â€Å"cleaner image† in the city of Aguascalientes, for whom is this image? Curiously the Mexonline website gives Aguascalientes a different reputation, contradicting Medina’s biased proposal. The Mexonline website gives its audience the impression that Aguascalientes has a very accepting and diverse society. The website states, â€Å" Aguascalientes is well positioned to mull full-steam ahead into the 21st century. We are well aware that our future rests on our export capacity. World business leaders, who have already located in the state, share our vision and, together with our local business community, our industrious labor force, and our imaginative policy makers, have joined hands and laid the foundation for a prosperous and happy society in this, ‘the state of friendly people.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Adolescent Sex Offenders and Social Workers Role

One of the most significant problems of the Western world is sexual assaults which rank among the societies’ illness that connects to other crimes such as nonsexual crime, spread of infectious diseases, substance abuse and environmental damage.Victims of sexual assaults are increasing on a large scale basis according to the 1987 surveys using stratified random samples of selected population.Sexual assaults during the past decades have shown that one half of the number of women interviewed say they experienced sexual victimization before reaching the age of 14 while one in four of the adult female respondents say they were sexually abused before the age of 18. Although most of these assaults were committed by adults, male juvenile sex offenders are beginning to take the limelight in committing sex offenses more than any other records we had decades ago.Male sex offenders are those persons convicted in court of sexual crimes that include rape, sexual intent such as molestations and sexual component which include rape with murder. Categorically there are two types of sex offenders and these are the adult and adolescent offenders.While the adult sex offenders are fully sanctioned by the law, juvenile or adolescent sex offenders are treated differently because they are still under the age covered by juvenile criminal justice system which separate them from adult system.In the criminal justice system, the court considers a young person a sex offender when he or she cannot be responsible for the criminal behavior because of his or her age. In American jurisdictions, when a person is younger than 12 years old, he or she is considered a child so they cannot be convicted of sexual crime because sexual crime covers only those who are 13 years and above.Juvenile or adolescent sex offenders, however, have ages of 12 up to 18 therefore they are within the juvenile court system and consider them as juvenile sex offenders. They can be held liable for sexual offense beca use according to the court they can be criminally responsible for the crime because of their capability to distinguish sexual offense.According to the US statistical data, from 1985 to 2000, 91.8% of sexual offenses were committed by young males with ages 12 to 17.In a study conducted in 1983 by Ageton, he estimated that approximately around 20% of all rapes and child molestations were caused by adolescent male offenders. One of the most recognizable characteristics of adolescent sex offender is their deviant sexual behavior.This behavior includes sexual behavior on child molestation, pedophilia and fetishism. Sexual deviation is often interpreted as â€Å"sexual perversion† or â€Å"paraphilia†.   Paraphilia is defined in the medical or behavioral science as a behavioral condition that refers to sexual deviation, sexual anomaly, sexual perversion or a disorder of sexual preference.Adolescent sex offenders suffering from Paraphilias are mostly males who develop this condition during their early puberty and may suffer from it until the age of 20 (Barbaree & Marshall, 2008).In 1994, the American Academy of Pediatrics has published its last policy statement that includes information on rape and sexual assault by adolescents, victims of these assaults and the perception of these adolescents about sexual assault or sexual offense. Sexual assault or sexual offence may vary in definitions.It may connote rape, acquaintance, date rape, molestation, statutory rape, treatment and management of the victim. In sexual offense, there is usually sexual contact with or without penetration that occur either with the use of psychological coercion or by physical force. It can also include touching the person that violates his or her persona or touching the person’s sexual or body parts or even touching the clothing that covers the intimate parts of the person.There is molestation even when there is non-coital sexual activity between a child, an adolescent o r an adult. Molestation which is one form of sexual offense can also include encouraging a child in viewing pornographic materials, fondling of the genitals or breasts or through oral-genital contact.According to the national data, victims of adolescent sexual offense are mainly composed of adolescents themselves. Although adolescent sexual offenders may victimize any age group, according to the 1998 record of the US Department of Justice out of the 1000 males and female victims of sexual assault annually, 3.5 % are of ages 12 through 15 years of age and 5 % are of 16 to 19 years of ages.These are only conservative data because accordingly cases are not all reported due to the fact that the assailants are of their acquaintance or relative of the victims.Usually the persons involved in the treatment of these victims are pediatricians who are responsible in the management of children and the well being of the adolescents. This is because they are trained to conduct forensic procedures that are necessary for documentation and evidence collection which the pediatrician must refer to an emergency department or rape crisis center when there is the case of adolescent rape.Rape cases may involve Colposcopic procedures that will allow examiners to check on genital trauma as seen in rape cases. Pediatricians who are tasked to treat sexually abused or assaulted patients must be aware of the legal requirements which include the completion of the needed forms, documentation and reporting to the authorities.In case there is diagnosis and management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) blood and tissue specimens should be obtained and checked as most of the victims of adolescent sex offenders may suffer from these kinds of diseases and infection (Kaufman, 2008).But what causes male adolescent sexual offense and what are the treatments? According to studies adolescent sexual behavior develop during childhood. Because of exposure to non-profound sexual values and absence of bonding with their families, the young mind of a child learned to trust no one.They may be exposed to sexual behavior and values that victimize people or live in a very complex family setting where they see their parents getting involved with other partners. Because of the lack of stability and consistency in mind, the children’s confused world affects their sexual identity.Since they lack psychological support from their families, what they have in their environment confuse them to the point of getting confused by his own sexual identity. As they grow up, they cannot categorize what is right from wrong when it comes to having relationship particularly sexual relationship.Psychiatrists can be able to see this abnormal behavior based from the adolescent’s background. They can also see the difference between normal boys and young sex offenders. A normal boy is usually self-absorbed but also much aware of other people and his surroundings while a boy with adolescent sex offender tendencies is usually motivated in satisfying his own needs with no regards for others.In the case of a normal adolescent male, as puberty sets in he will take interest with the opposite sex. Although this is also true with an adolescent male sex offender, the problem is he can both become attracted to males and females but this attraction is not based on respect but with manipulative and opportunistic desire that involves inappropriate sexual fantasies.While the normal adolescent boy begins to seek friendship with his peers, the offender will only wish for sexual relationships. Because of this unusual personality, the opposite sex may find him unsuitable for friendship and avoid his companionship. In view of this the offender may just commit sexual gratification by other means and to what satisfies him regardless of consequences.Since this condition may become too emotionally deep, extensive study of the offender’s background and psychiatric test must be provided to prevent re-offending. Treatment must be applied and people in charge of the treatment must start with orienting the offender of his condition to prevent the status of denial and begin to process individual motivations, detect the signals to offending, monitor emotional responses and pattern of offense.The offender must be taught to assume responsibility of his own behavior and must be told that his deeds make him to act antisocially. This process will enable the adolescent to understand his condition and can motivate himself to seek help to prevent future conflicts. This usual therapy can help in making the offender analyze and acknowledge his offenses so that he can have room for potential change.Some important treatments that are involved to alter abnormal sexual behavior is altering the deviant sexual fantasies of the offenders and stop the habit of masturbation, improving the development of conscience and feelings of empathy. Patients subjected to group therapy experience faste r treatment and this is where the value of the social workers comes into place.The social workers can significantly assist treatment and therapy to enable the patients to coordinate events, thoughts and feelings that trigger his offending behavior. In case they bypasses boundaries of good morals, the social workers will reorganize and restructure their thoughts by teaching them re-routing their energies to legitimate leisure activities to prevent immersing themselves to boredom which can trigger offensive behaviors.One of the most important aspects of treating an adolescent sex offender particularly in males is abandoning the objectification of people specifically of those sex partners so that he will learn social skills and attracting a person to a commitment of a true, loving and committed relationship. Getting him exposed to be moral is the main objective of therapy and treatment.Truly, it takes a lot of effort to make an offender get on the right track because as we have said, h is mind and abnormal behavior developed during his younger years of mental formation that is why treatments sometimes seem to be overwhelming.There are different forms of treatment and therapy with this condition and they take in many forms. Social workers, however, does not rely on drugs or other forms of treatment that uses chemicals in enhancing treatment but instead they condition the mind of the offenders through the use of lectures, discussions, exercises, movies, instructional videos, role playing, oral treatment plan assignments and so on.Usually social workers rely on the use of role models that are once adolescent sex offenders and can serve as rich source of experiences. Social workers are especially trained to share personal anecdotes in teaching the fundamentals of responsibility, sexuality, morality, social skills and communication, preventing relapse and emotionality.They encourage their subjects in watching television shows and news programs that offer rich sources o f discussion that provokes moral interpretations and judgments.As have been mentioned before, group therapy can be the most significant treatment of all the choices provided by the social workers because a group mobilizes peer pressure and can be a powerful motivator for change and it presses confession and conformation as well. Counseling is also done to individual inpatients and outpatients on a weekly basis (Lakey, 1994).  However since this discussion is primarily pointing at what are the causes and treatment of adolescent sex offense it must also be noted that prevention must be considered to altogether stop or spread the cases of this clinical condition.We all know that 95% of the time, sex is rooted out in our childhood because as children, we have an inborn curiosity about everything including sex. A child who starts to mingle with other children accelerates this curiosity to an astonishing degree and therefore this is where the guidance of his family must come to play.Onc e the child begins to notice the opposite sex it means his curiosity starts to accelerate removing himself to his confinement with his toys and playthings. However if the child cannot get from his parents the information of what he is curious about, his tendency is to run to his peers or other adults for the answers. Unfortunately, pedophiles are most aware in this factor and may use their advantage to gain the trust of children.The result of the curiosity of the child may be disastrous in this manner. That is why sex education at home should begin the earliest possible time or when the child starts to ask questions about sexuality. Male child may ask about simple things but the parent must answer the child with very basic answers that do not need to talk about pure sex.The parents must also correct misinformation that deals with sex contributed to him by his peers, classmates or other adults. Remember that everything that the child ask and see becomes imprinted in his young mind an d will carry and lead him to other aspects related to what he learned during his developing years.When the child starts to enter his adolescence he begins to experience confusion and will try to discover his true identity. Inadequate learning from his family or misinformation given to him by other people may confuse him deeply which can affect his personality and his view toward sex may become abnormal.Being in the stage of budding adolescence is where the role of his family becomes critical because he will see that something different takes place on his body and at the same time notice that opposite sex attracts him. If misguided and the adolescent has no one to talk about the changes he feels, depression may result and he can have a puzzled adolescent life (Prendergast, 2003).No man has desired to be a sex offender but unfortunately we cannot always direct our lives due to the fact that there are many influences that may put our child at risk. However, the US government is very an xious about this and so every US state are encouraged to put up their adolescent prevention program to put a hold on the growing criminality caused by the offending youths.According to The Safer Society Foundation, in 1986 there were about 346 programs in the U.S. treating adolescent sex offenders with ages ranging from 12-17. In 2002 these programs rose to 937. But with the rising offenses during that period around 410 programs were also established for children under the age of 12 due to the rising trends of younger offenders.Government programs were the result of these data because suddenly there was the need for establishing programs for juvenile treatment as referred by state courts (â€Å"Juvenile Probation and Court Services Department,† 2006)For the conclusion of this discussion, checking on the data plus the concern that affects some of our youth, there is a point indeed for concern for the need to answer the growing problem of adolescent sex offense. Through the yea rs, this information tells us that not only adolescents are affected by this conditions but even younger males.There are now researches to back-up the need for rehabilitation of the offenders because of the massive data that have been supported by studies and information from the US National Statistics and other government programs. Giving hope to these children through treatments encouraged by different programs is the only recourse we could do because we want to prevent further debilitation of culture and future of our youth.eferences:Barbaree, H., & Marshall, W. L. (2008). The Juvenile Sex Offender, Second Edition (2 ed.): Guilford Press (book)Juvenile Probation and Court Services Department.   (2006). Retrieved from http://www.cookcountycourt.org/services/programs/juvenile/innovations.html#jsoKaufman, M. (2008). Care of the Adolescent Sexual Assault Victim. Pediatrics (Journal), 107, 1476-1479.Lakey, J. F. (1994). The Profile and Treatment of Male Adolescent Sex Offenders. Ado lescence (Journal), 29(116), 755-761.Prendergast, W. E. (2003). Treating Sex Offenders (2nd ed. Vol. 1): Haworth Press. (book)

Monday, September 16, 2019

Hiram Miller Essay

I. Basic Problem The Hiram Miller Office Products Division does not have an adequate main warehouse facility to support the operations of their business. This is seen throughout the company causing problems with inventory levels, shipping/receiving, and workforce levels. Both the available space outside the warehouse and the building itself are significant problems. II. Support for the Basic Problem Insufficient dock space had more than one second order causal problem. Demurrage and redelivery charges had to be paid, lead time had to be increased by 2-4 weeks on full truck shipments, and larger inventory safety stocks were needed because there were not enough docks to accommodate the shipment load. The charges hurt the company directly with financial losses, the longer lead time meant the company had to rely on forecasting more heavily, and extra safety stock results in unnecessary usage of warehouse space. Trucks were forced to line up in the street, violating traffic rules, which had to be compensated by bribing police officers. This cost the company money and was unethical. The lack of dock space also caused outgoing shipments to be delayed because there was no room to drop a trailer which meant longer lead times for the customers. Weak floors, low ceilings, and the use of elevators created major inefficiencies within the warehouse. Not being able to use forklifts increased the amount of people needed to move merchandise and added time to the unloading/loading process. Pallets couldn’t be stacked with low ceilings so the space sitting inventory used up could be used for other purposes. Animosity between workers is never beneficial to a company and the presence of elevators means that people are continually fighting over who gets to use it, which caused constant battles. III. Alternate Recommendations My first recommendation is to improve the existing building on Jefferson Street by enforcing the floors to allow the use of forklifts. This would cut down on the labor force and make moving merchandise faster, but wouldn’t help the lack of dock space. The company could attempt to buyout land around the Carpenter Street warehouse, renovate it, and use as the main warehouse. This would provide more dock space but could be difficult if no one is willing to give up their land. The Jefferson Street warehouse could be redone to create more docking area, less warehouse square footage, and higher ceilings so that such high inventory safety stock isn’t necessary and merchandise could be stacked higher. This would preserve the company’s current prime location but would be difficult to complete because of the heavy traffic of daily shipments. IV. Best Recommendation The best solution is to build a new warehouse on the thirty acres available. While it’s being constructed, the Jefferson Street warehouse could still be in full operation. There would be more space for docking, customer parking, higher ceilings, and the ability to use forklifts and rail possibly could benefit the company tremendously. V. Methods of Implementation Plans for the number of docks, employees, material handling systems, and office space would be needed. The company’s budget would have to be looked at for inefficiencies with simple fixes in order to fund the project more feasibly. Analysis would be needed in order to gauge the customer’s reactions as well as the cost-savings benefit of becoming much more efficient.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Chemical Reactions

Chemical Reactions Chemical Change †¢ reorganization †¢ original substances form new substances with different formulas †¢ may or may not involve a change of state †¢ symbols used to describe chemical reaction are known as a chemical equation †¢ Chemical equations do not have equal signs (=) they have an arrow Chemical Equations †¢ Must follow the Law of Conservation of Matter †¢ atoms can neither be created or destroyed during a chemical reaction †¢ What goes in must come out! Chemical Equations †¢ Reactants = Products same number of atoms of each element on each side of the reaction arrow Equations must be balanced! †¢ other symbols †¢ (s)solid †¢ (l)liquid †¢ (g)gas †¢ (aq)aqueous, dissolved inwater Balancing Chemical Equations †¢ First check all ionic formulas to see if they are correct! Five steps to balancing equations 1. Count the number of atoms of each element (or polyatomic ion) on the reactant side and then on the product side. You may want to use a chart or table. 2. Determine which are out of balance – these need to be balanced 3. Pick an element or polyatomic ion to start with†¦ †¢ Balance using coefficients. †¢ Do not use coefficients of 1 †¢ No changes may be made to the subscripts †¢ use least common multiples 5. Check and recheck! †¢ Practice balancing these equations †¢ H2(g) + O2(g) > H2O †¢ KCl + BaSO4 > K2SO4 + BaCl2 Types of Chemical Reactions †¢ Combination /Direct Combinationsynthesis †¢ 2Na(s) + Cl2(g) > 2 NaCl(s) Single Displacement †¢ single substitution †¢ anion always replaces anion †¢ cation always replaces cation Mg + 2 HCl > MgCl2 + H2 †¢ Complete the following Single Displacement (formula is correct) Al + CuSO4 Double Displacement †¢ 2 substitutions †¢ ion-exchange †¢ MgSO4 + BaCl2 >BaSO4 + MgCl2 †¢ Types of Chemical Reactions †¢ Double Displacement †¢ What are the expected products of MgSO4 + BaCl2 †¢ Types of Chemical Reactions †¢ KOH + MgCl ( †¢ check formulas and complete) Decomposition †¢ HgO > Hg + O2 (balance) †¢ 2 HgO > 2 Hg + O2 †¢ carbonic acid in lab activity Oxidation / Reduction †¢ oxidize iron into rust 4Fe + 3O2 ( 2Fe2O3 Oxidation reactions †¢ add O (or remove H) Reduction reactions †¢ add H ( or remove O) Redox reaction †¢ Combination of oxidation and reduction Practice †¢ How many grams of diatomic oxygen (O2) are needed to make 4 moles of magnesium oxide (MgO) from magnesium ribbon (Mg)? †¢ Hint balance equation and use coefficient as mole. Energy in a Chemical Reaction Endothermic †¢ heat in †¢ requires activation energy †¢ A + B + 100kcal => C + D Exothermic †¢ heat out †¢ A + B => C + D + 100 kcal

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Symbols in to Kill a Mockingbird/Bless Me Ultima

Mockingbirds: The mockingbird is a symbol that is used to show the idea of innocence. A mockingbird brings nothing but good with its’ beautiful songs, so if you kill a mockingbird it is a sin because it is so innocent. Boo Radley is often connected to the mockingbird because he is innocent in his situation and it is wrong for people to assume bad things about him when they do not really know him, and he is slowly destroyed by the people of Maycomb throughout the book.The Mad Dog: Tim Johnson was a dog infected with rabies that needed to be put down. The dog is a symbol of racism in the novel. Racism is getting out of control (just like the dog), and it needs to be put to a stop. Atticus shoots the dog to put him down but racism is a harder challenge to try and defeat. Atticus has to do things he doesn’t want to, like killing a dog and facing the court room. Bless Me Ultima: Rudolfo Anaya Ultima’s Owl: Ultima’s owl represents Ultima’s life in animal form. Related article: Arguments Made in Take the Tortillas Out of Your PoetryThe owl that sings to Antonio every night comforts him during his dreams. This is just like how whenever Ultima is around Antonio he feels at ease. When Tenorio kills the owl, Ultima soon dies after because her animal force was killed. The Virgin of Guadalupe: The statue in this novel represents forgiveness and understanding. Whenever Antonio feels troubled he turns to the statue. The statue accepts Antonios failures and always forgives.